Accuracy and Concurrent Validity of a 5-point Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale for Selecting and Managing Moderate Level Resistance Training Intensity Original Research

Main Article Content

Charlie McMillin, PhD, MSc, MS
Dr. Bridget Melton, CSCS*D, TSAC-F*D, EP-C
Nicholas Murray, PhD, CIC
Dr. Chris D'Adamo

Keywords

Functional limitations, resistance training machines, 50% 1-RM

Abstract

Introduction: This investigation examined the prediction accuracy and concurrent validity of the Perceived Effort Continuum (PEC) RPE scale for use with two upper body resistance training machines.  


Methods:  Twenty resistance trained participants (M = 14; F = 6) performed one exercise each on the seated row (SR) and chest press (CP) machines to obtain RPE estimation data and surface electromyographic recordings (sEMG). Each exercise was initiated with the lightest possible weight selections (WS) and terminated when the incrementally increased WS elicited a participant report of RPE 5.


Results: Strong positive relationships existed between RPE and sEMG for the SR (r = .658, p < .001), RPE and sEMG for the CP (r = .615, p < .001), RPE and WS for the SR (r = .880, p < .001), and RPE and WS for the CP (r = .779, p <.001). The mean WS for RPE levels 1-4 were 12%, 27%, 50%, and 80% and 17%, 31%, 51%, and 80% when normalized to a percentage of the WS of RPE 5 for the CP and SR respectively.


Conclusions: The PEC scale is a valid method of assessing perceived exertion during RT performed on a CP and SR and can be used to estimate a moderate level of intensity without subjecting the participant to inadvisable direct maximal testing.

Abstract 202 | PDF Downloads 127 PodScholars Audio Downloads 0

References

1. King A, Powell K. 2018 Physical activity guidelines advisory committee scientific report. US Department of Health and Human Services; 2018.
2. Durstine JL, Moore GE, Painter PL. ACSM's exercise management for persons with chronic diseases and disabilities. 4th ed. Human Kinetics; 2016.
3. Westcott WL. Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2012;11(4):209-216. doi:10.1249/JSR.0b013e31825dabb8
4. Busch AJ, Webber SC, Richards RS, et al. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(12):CD010884. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010884
5. Corcos DM, Robichaud JA, David FJ, et al. A 2-year randomized controlled trial of progressive resistance exercise for Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2013;28(9):1230-1240. doi:10.1002/mds.25380
6. D’Adamo CR, McMillin CR, Chen KW, Lucas EK, Berman BM. Supervised resistance exercise for patients with persistent symptoms of Lyme disease. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(11):2291-2298. doi:10.1249/mss.0000000000000683
7. Durcan L, Wilson F, Cunnane G. The effect of exercise on sleep and fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized controlled study. J Rheumatol. 2014;41(10):1966-1973. doi:10.3899/jrheum.131282
8. Feiereisen P, Delagardelle C, Vaillant M, Lasar Y, Beissel J. Is strength training the more efficient training modality in chronic heart failure? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(11):1910-1917. doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e31814fb545
9. Pinto RS, Correa CS, Radaelli R, Cadore EL, Brown LE, Bottaro M. Short-term strength training improves muscle quality and functional capacity of elderly women. AGE. 2013;36(1):365-372. doi:10.1007/s11357-013-9567-2
10. Toth C, Brady S, Gagnon F, Wigglesworth K. A randomized, single-blind, controlled, parallel assignment study of exercise versus education as adjuvant in the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain. Clin J Pain. 2014;30(2):111-118. doi:10.1097/ajp.0b013e31828ccd0f
11. Pedersen BK, Saltin B. Exercise as medicine - Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in 26 different chronic diseases. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015;25:1-72. doi:10.1111/sms.12581
12. Eijsvogels TM, Thompson PD. Exercise Is Medicine: At Any Dose?. JAMA. 2015;314(18):1915-1916. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.10858
13. Greene DR, Petruzzello SJ. More isn’t necessarily better: Examining the intensity–affect–enjoyment relationship in the context of resistance exercise. Sport Exerc Perform Psychol. 2015;4(2):75-87. doi:10.1037/spy0000030
14. Bibeau WS, Moore JB, Mitchell NG, Vargas-Tonsing T, Bartholomew JB. Effects of acute resistance training of different intensities and rest periods on anxiety and affect. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(8):2184-2191. doi:10.1519/jsc.0b013e3181ae794b
15. Tharion W, Rauch T, Harman E, Kraemer W. Effects of different resistance exercise protocols on mood states. Army Res Inst Environ Med. 1988.
16. Chang YK, Etnier JL. Exploring the dose-response relationship between resistance exercise intensity and cognitive function. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2009;31(5):640-656. doi:10.1123/jsep.31.5.640
17. Zourdos MC, Klemp A, Dolan C, et al. Novel resistance training–Specific rating of perceived exertion scale measuring repetitions in reserve. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(1):267-275. doi:10.1519/jsc.0000000000001049
18. Naclerio F, Rodríguez-Romo G, Barriopedro-Moro MI, Jiménez A, Alvar BA, Triplett NT. Control of resistance training intensity by the Omni perceived exertion scale. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(7):1879-1888. doi:10.1519/jsc.0b013e3181e501e9
19. Jacobs PL. NSCA's essentials of training special populations. Human Kinetics; 2018.
20. Haile L, Gallagher MJ, Robertson RJ. Perceived exertion laboratory manual: From standard practice to contemporary application. Springer; 2015.
21. Schoenfeld B, Snarr RL. NSCA's essentials of personal training. Human Kinetics; 2022.
22. Braith RW, Graves JE, Leggett SH, Pollock ML. Effect of training on the relationship between maximal and submaximal strength. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25(1):132-138. doi:10.1249/00005768-199301000-00018
23. Brzycki M. Strength testing—predicting a one-rep max from reps-to-fatigue. J Phys Educ Recreat Dance. 1993;64(1):88-90. doi:10.1080/07303084.1993.10606684
24. Dohoney P, Chromiak JA, Lemire D, Abadie BR, Kovacs C. Prediction of one repetition maximum (1-RM) strength from a 4-6 RM and a 7-10 RM submaximal strength test in healthy young adult males. J Exerc Physiol Online. 2002;5(3):54-59.
25. Borg G. Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1970;2(2):92-98.
26. Borg G. Borg's perceived exertion and pain scales. Human Kinetics; 1998.
27. Lagally KM, Robertson RJ, Gallagher KI, et al. Perceived exertion, electromyography, and blood lactate during acute bouts of resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(3):552-559. doi:10.1097/00005768-200203000-00025
28. Robertson RJ, Goss FL, Rutkowski J, Lenz B, Dixon C, Timmer J, Frazee K, Dube J, Andreacci J. Concurrent validation of the OMNI perceived exertion scale for resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(2):333-341. doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000048831.15016.2a
29. Lagally KM, McCaw ST, Young GT, Medema HC, Thomas DQ. Ratings of perceived exertion and muscle activity during the bench press exercise in recreational and novice lifters. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(2):359-364. doi:10.1519/R-12782.1
30. Gearhart RE, Goss FL, Lagally KM, Jakicic JM, Gallagher J, Gallagher KI, Robertson RJ. Ratings of perceived exertion in active muscle during high-intensity and low-intensity resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2002;16(1):87-91. doi:10.1519/00124278-200202000-00013
31. Robertson RJ, Noble BJ. Perception of physical exertion: methods, mediators, and applications. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 1997;25:407-452.
32. Colado JC, Garcia-Masso X, Triplett TN, Flandez J, Borreani S, Tella V. Concurrent validation of the Omni-resistance exercise scale of perceived exertion with Thera-band Resistance Bands. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(11):3018-3024. doi:10.1519/jsc.0b013e318245c0c9
33. Colado JC, Garcia-Masso X, Triplett NT, Calatayud J, Flandez J, Behm D, Rogers ME. Construct and concurrent validation of a new resistance intensity scale for exercise with Thera-band® elastic bands. J Sports Sci Med. 2014;13(4):758-766.
34. Colado JC, Furtado GE, Teixeira AM, Flandez J, Naclerio F. Concurrent and construct validation of a new scale for rating perceived exertion during elastic resistance training in the elderly. J Sports Sci Med. 2020;19(1):175-186.
35. Jones LA, Hunter IW. Force and EMG correlates of constant effort contractions. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1983;51(1):75-83. doi:10.1007/bf00952540
36. McCloskey DI, Gandevia S, Potter EK, Colebatch JG. Muscle sense and effort: motor commands and judgments about muscular contractions. Adv Neurol. 1983;39:151-167.
37. Cafarelli E, Bigland-Ritchie B. Sensation of static force in muscles of different length. Exp Neurol. 1979;65(3):511-525. doi:10.1016/0014-4886(79)90040-2
38. Boettcher CE, Ginn KA, Cathers I. Standard maximum isometric voluntary contraction tests for normalizing shoulder muscle EMG. J Orthop Res. 2008;26(12):1591-1597. doi:10.1002/jor.20675
39. Purvis T. Strategies, precision, and the functional continuum. Tom Purvis.
40. Hermens HJ, Freriks B, Merletti R, et al. European recommendations for surface electromyography. Roessingh Res Dev. 1999;8(2):13-54.
41. Basmajian JV, Blumenstein R. Electrode placement in EMG biofeedback. Williams & Wilkins; 1980.