The Effects of Antioxidant Consumption on Inflammation and Muscle Soreness at Moderate Altitude in Collegiate Football Student-Athletes Original Research

Main Article Content

Jessica Szczepanski
Nanette V. Lopez
Jay T. Sutliffe

Keywords

Sports Nutrition, Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory Markers, Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

Abstract

Introduction: Athletics training and competition is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation, especially at moderate altitude. This results from an increased formation of reactive oxygen species due to increased metabolic activity of working cells and tissues as well as decreased oxygen pressure. The oxidative stress can cause inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), which can be a serious problem for athletes training and competing at a high caliber, as it interferes with optimal sport performance and recovery. A diet intervention was developed to study the relationship between antioxidant-rich food consumption and implications per reduced inflammation and DOMS among athletes.


Methods: During summer 2021, 32 NCAA Division 1 collegiate football student-athletes living and training at moderate altitude were recruited to participate in a seven-week nutrition intervention. Participants were assigned to either an intervention or control group. Participants in the intervention group consumed at least 10,000 Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) score units per day through an antioxidant-rich trail mix constructed by the research team. Participants consumed this trail mix in addition to their normal diet. Participants in the control group did not receive trail mix and continued their normal diet. Inflammation was measured pre- and post- intervention through blood biomarkers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, hs-CRP; Interleukin-6, IL-6) and urine sample analysis (Isoprostane Creatinine ratio, F2/C). DOMS was measured through a pre- and post- survey (Numerical Pain Rating Scale, NPRS).


Results: An independent samples T-test identified the change in mean ORAC scores for the intervention group (M±SD, 149121 units ± 18357 units) was statistically higher than the change in mean ORAC score for the control group (28391 units ± 15359 units): t(30)=-20.02, p<.001. Paired samples T-tests indicated that hs-CRP and F2/C did not change significantly between time 1 (hsCRP: 1.31 mg/dL ±1.28 mg/dL) (F2/C: 0.41 ± 0.23) and time 2 (hsCRP: 1.50 mg/dL ± 1.92 mg/dL) (F2/C: 0.42 ± 0.11). Separate regression analyses identified pre- F2/C as a significant predictor of post- F2/C for the control group (B=0.399, p<0.001) and mean ORAC score as a significant predictor of post- F2/C for the intervention group (B=-3.604E-6, p=0.028). Repeated measures ANOVA indicated no significant effect of time (F(1,27)=0.399, p=.533), or group by time (F(1,27)=0.521, p=.477) on DOMS.


Conclusions: Antioxidant-rich food consumption had minimal impact on inflammation or DOMS induced by physical exercise at moderate altitude among this sample of collegiate football student-athletes. Future research is required to assess the relationship between antioxidant consumption and implications per reduced inflammation and DOMS for student-athletes participating in other collegiate sports.

Abstract 59 | PDF Downloads 23

References

1. Jamurtas AZ. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress. Antioxidants (Basel). 2018;7(4):50. Published 2018 Mar 28. doi:10.3390/antiox7040050
2. Kawamura T, Muraoka I. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress and the Effects of Antioxidant Intake from a Physiological Viewpoint. Antioxidants (Basel). 2018;7(9):119. Published 2018 Sep 5. doi:10.3390/antiox7090119
3. Draeger, C. L., Naves, A., Marques, N., Baptistella, A. B., Carnauba, R. A., Paschoal, V., & Nicastro, H. (2014, February 19). Controversies of antioxidant vitamins supplementation in exercise: Ergogenic or ergolytic effects in humans? Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. BioMed Central Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-11-4
4. Elkington, L. J., Gleeson, M., Pyne, D. B., Callister, R., & Wood, L. G. (2015). Inflammation and Immune Function: Can Antioxidants Help the Endurance Athlete? Antioxidants in Sport Nutrition. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26065080
5. Serafini M, Peluso I. Functional Foods for Health: The Interrelated Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Role of Fruits, Vegetables, Herbs, Spices and Cocoa in Humans. Curr Pharm Des. 2016;22(44):6701-6715. doi:10.2174/1381612823666161123094235
6. Pizzino G, Irrera N, Cucinotta M, et al. Oxidative Stress: Harms and Benefits for Human Health. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:8416763. doi:10.1155/2017/8416763
7. Reuter S, Gupta SC, Chaturvedi MM, Aggarwal BB. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: how are they linked?. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49(11):1603-1616. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.09.006
8. Subrata Kumar Biswas, "Does the Interdependence between Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Explain the Antioxidant Paradox?", Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2016, Article ID 5698931, 9 pages, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5698931
9. Ou B, Chang T, Huang D, Prior RL. Determination of total antioxidant capacity by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) using fluorescein as the fluorescence probe: First Action 2012.23. J AOAC Int. 2013;96(6):1372-1376. doi:10.5740/jaoacint.13-175
10. Kawamura T, Muraoka I. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress and the Effects of Antioxidant Intake from a Physiological Viewpoint. Antioxidants (Basel). 2018;7(9):119. Published 2018 Sep 5. doi:10.3390/antiox7090119
11. Bohlooli S, Barmaki S, Khoshkhahesh F, Nakhostin-Roohi B. The effect of spinach supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2015;55(6):609-614.
12. Morrow. (2005). Quantification of Isoprostanes as Indices of Oxidant Stress and the Risk of Atherosclerosis in Humans. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 25(2), 279–286. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.0000152605.64964.c0
13. Il'yasova, D., Scarbrough, P., & Spasojevic, I. (2012). Urinary biomarkers of oxidative status. Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry, 413(19-20), 1446–1453.
14. Haefeli M, Elfering A. Pain assessment. Eur Spine J. 2006;15 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S17-S24. doi:10.1007/s00586-005-1044-x
15. Sutliffe JT, Gardner JC, Gormley JN, Carnot MJ, Adams A. Assessing the Dietary Quality and Health Status among Division 1 Collegiate Athletes at Moderate Altitude. The Sport Journal. Published 2019 Feb 7. ISSN: 1543-9518
16. Sproston NR, Ashworth JJ. Role of C-Reactive Protein at Sites of Inflammation and Infection. Front Immunol. 2018;9:754. Published 2018 Apr 13. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.00754
17. Kobayashi, S., Murakami, K., Sasaki, S. et al. Dietary total antioxidant capacity from different assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women. Nutr J 11, 91 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-11-91
18. Mastaloudis, Angela, Leonard, Scott W, & Traber, Maret G. (2001). Oxidative stress in athletes during extreme endurance exercise. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 31(7), 911-922.
19. Ranchordas MK, Rogerson D, Soltani H, Costello JT. Antioxidants for preventing and reducing muscle soreness after exercise. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;12(12):CD009789. Published 2017 Dec 14. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009789.pub2
20. León-López J, Calderón-Soto C, Pérez-Sánchez M, et al. Oxidative stress in elite athletes training at moderate altitude and at sea level. Eur J Sport Sci. 2018;18(6):832-841. doi:10.1080/17461391.2018.1453550