Effect of Pre-sleep Casein and Tryptophan Supplementation on Energy Expenditure Before, During, and After Exercise in Active Females

Main Article Content

Hannah Nelson
Silvio P. Valladão
Neil Schwarz
Melinda Valliant
Thomas L. Andre


Protein supplementation, Metabolic rate, Perceived sleep


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of pre-sleep casein protein and tryptophan supplement (SUP) ingestion on sleep quality and morning energy expenditure prior to, during, and post-exercise. Methods: Thirteen aerobically active females (age = 22.6 ± 1.9yrs; ht = 1.65 ± 0.06m; wt = 60.5 ± 9.6kg; %bf = 22.5 ± 4.3) ingested SUP or placebo (PLA) 30 min prior to going to bed in 2 trials. The following morning, perceived sleep quality and satiety were assessed, and resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured for 30 minutes before and after 20 min of exercise at 40-50% of VO2max while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE). Results: Sleep quality and satiety during SUP was not significantly different than PLA trial (61.6 ± 21.5 vs 68.4 ± 20.5 mm; p = 0.39; 29.6 ± 8.2 vs 23.9 ± 6.6 mm; p = 0.43). REE before and after exercise during SUP and PLA were not significantly different F(1,12)=0,141, p = 0.71. EEE during SUP was not significantly different than PLA (112.1 ± 20.4 vs 112.2 ± 21.8 kcals; p = 0.91). Conclusion: No changes were seen when ingesting SUP prior to sleep on morning EEE and REE before and after exercise.

Abstract 71 | PDF Downloads 17


1. Acheson KJ, Blondel-Lubrano A, Oguey-Araymon S, et al. Protein choices targeting thermogenesis and metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(3):525-534. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.005850.

2. Apolzan JW, Carnell NS, Mattes RD, Campbell WW. Inadequate Dietary Protein Increases Hunger and Desire to Eat in Younger and Older Men 1,2. Vol 137.; 2007. https://academic.oup.com/jn/article- abstract/137/6/1478/4664810.

3. Poppitt SD, Proctor J, McGill AT, et al. Low-dose whey protein-enriched water beverages alter satiety in a study of overweight women. Appetite. 2011;56(2):456-464. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2011.01.015

4. Latner JD, Schwartz M. The Effects of a High-carbohydrate, High-protein or Balanced Lunch upon Later Food Intake and Hunger Ratings. Appetite. 1999;33:119-128. http://www.idealibrary.comon.

5. De Cássia R, Alfenas G, Bressan J, Cardoso De Paiva A. Effects of Protein Quality on Appetite and Energy Metabolism in Normal Weight Subjects. Vol 54.; 2010.

6. Boirie Y, Dangin M, Gachon P, Vasson M-P, Maubois J-L, Beaufrere B. Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1997;94:14930- 14935. www.pnas.org. Accessed July 11, 2020.

7. Beelen M, Tieland M, Gijsen AP, et al. Coingestion of Carbohydrate and Protein Hydrolysate Stimulates Muscle Protein Synthesis during Exercise in Young Men, with No Further Increase during Subsequent Overnight Recovery. J Nutr. 2008;138:2198-2204. doi:10.3945/jn.108.092924

8. Groen BBL, Res PT, Pennings B, et al. Intragastric protein administration stimulates overnight muscle protein synthesis in elderly men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;302:52-60. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00321.2011.-The

9. Res PT, Groen B, Pennings B, et al. Protein ingestion before sleep improves postexercise overnight recovery. Med doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31824cc363 Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(8):1560-1569.

10. Madzima TA, Melanson JT, Black JR, Nepocatych S. Pre-sleep consumption of casein and whey protein: Effects on morning metabolism and resistance exercise performance in active women. Nutrients. 2018;10(9). doi:10.3390/nu10091273

11. Madzima TA, Panton LB, Fretti SK, Kinsey AW, Ormsbee MJ. Night-time consumption of protein or carbohydrate results in increased morning resting energy expenditure in active college- aged men. Br J Nutr. 2014;111(1):71-77. doi:10.1017/S000711451300192X

12. Jäger R, Kerksick CM, Campbell BI, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: Protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017;14(20):1-25. doi:10.1186/s12970-017-0177- 8

13. Ormsbee MJ, Gorman KA, Miller EA, et al. Nighttime feeding likely alters morning metabolism but not exercise performance in female athletes. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41(7):719-727. doi:10.1139/apnm-2015-0526

14. Kinsey AW, Ormsbee MJ. The health impact of nighttime eating: Old and new perspectives. Nutrients. 2015;7:2648-2662. doi:10.3390/nu7042648

15. Eddy WR, Kinsey A, Madzima T, et al. The effect of nighttime macronutrient choice and exercise training on resting metabolic rate, appetite, and body composition in overweight and obese men and women. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012;9(1):P6. https://fsu.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/fsu%3A182840/. Accessed July 13, 2020.

16. Schattinger CM, Leonard JT, Pappas CL, Ormsbee MJ, Panton LB. The effects of pre-sleep consumption of casein protein on next-morning measures of resting metabolic rate and appetite compared between sedentary pre-and post-menopausal women. Br J Nutr. 2020:1-29. doi:10.1017/S0007114520001506

17. Spaeth A, Dinges D, Goel N. Resting metabolic rate varies by race and by sleep duration. Obesity. 2015;23(12):2349–2356.

18. Dattilo M, Antunes HKM, Medeiros A, et al. Sleep and muscle recovery: Endocrinological and molecular basis for a new and promising hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2011;77:220-222. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2011.04.017

19. Bravo R, Matito S, Cubero J, et al. Tryptophan-enriched cereal intake improves nocturnal sleep, melatonin, serotonin, and total antioxidant capacity levels and mood in elderly humans. Age (Omaha). 2013;35(4):1277-1285. doi:10.1007/s11357-012-9419-5.

20. Hajak G, Huether G, Blanke J, et al. The influence of intravenous L-tryptophan on plasma melatonin and sleep in men. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1991;24(1):17-20. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1014427

21. Lay AHH, Crabtree DR, Campbell TG, et al. A bedtime milk snack does not impact RMR, substrate utilisation and appetite the following morning in mildly overweight males. Br J Nutr. 2018;119:1355-1365. doi:10.1017/S0007114518001058

22. Hall WL, Millward DJ, Long SJ, Morgan LM. Casein and whey exert different effects on plasma amino acid profiles, gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetite. Br J Nutr. 2003;89(2):239- 248. doi:10.1079/bjn2002760

23. Chauffard-Alboucq FA, Leathwood PD, Dormond CA. Changes in plasma amino acid and subjective sleepiness ratings in humans after consuming L-tryptophan/maltodextrin mixes. Amino Acids. 1991;1:37-45. doi:10.1007/BF00808089

24. Hartmann ET. Effects of l-tryptophan on sleepiness and on sleep. Vol 17.; 1982.

25. Korner E, Bertha G, Flooh E, Reinhart B, Wolf R, Lechner H. Sleep-inducing effect of L- tryptophane. Eur Neurol. 1986;25(2):75-81. doi:10.1159/000116087

26. Thorleifsdóttir B, Björnsson JK, Kjeld M, Kristhjarnarson H. Effects of L-tryptophan on daytime
arousal. Neuropsychobiology. 1989;21(3):170-176. doi:10.1159/000118571

27. Garrido M, Paredes SD, Cubero J, et al. Jerte valley cherry-enriched diets improve nocturnal rest and increase 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and total antioxidant capacity in the urine of middle-aged and elderly humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci MEd Sci. 2010;65 A(9):909-914. doi:10.1093/gerona/glq099

28. Demisch K, Bauer J, Georgi K, Demisch L. Treatment of severe chronic insomnia with L- tryptophan: Results of a double-blind cross-over study. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1987;20:242-244. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1017114

29. George CFP, Millar TW, Hanly PJ, Kryger MH. The Effect of L-Tryptophan on Daytime Sleep Latency in Normals: Correlation with Blood Levels. Vol 12. Raven Press, Ltd; 1989. https://academic.oup.com/sleep/article-abstract/12/4/345/2742684. Accessed July 16, 2020.

30. Hartmann EL. Effect of L-Tryptophan and other amino acids on sleep. Nutr Rev. April 1986:70- 73. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.1986.tb07680.x

Most read articles by the same author(s)