Reliability of the HUMAC360 to Measure Movement Velocity during Three Equal Segments of the Barbell Back Squat Original Research

Main Article Content

Edward Z. Pelka
Jennifer Rivera
Ryan W. Gant
Anthony G. Pinzone
Emily C. Tagesen
Modesto A. Lebron
Adam R. Jajtner

Keywords

velocity-based training, resistance exercise, strength and conditioning

Abstract

Introduction: Linear position transducers (LPT) are commonly used to assess movement velocity during full concentric movements, but fail to account for fluctuations in velocity throughout the movement. This investigation aimed to determine inter-set and inter-day reliability of the HUMAC360 LPT during three equal segments of the barbell back squat.


Methods:  Seventeen participants with resistance exercise experience completed an informed consent and a one-repetition maximum (1RM) on their initial visit, with two additional visits consisting of two sets of three repetitions at 30-, 50-, 60- and 70% of 1RM with ≥ 48H between visits. The LPT was attached to the medial aspect of the barbell sleeve to assess velocity. Repetitions were segmented into thirds based on distance as the top, middle and bottom portion of the movement. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), standard error of the measurement and paired samples t-tests were used to assess mean velocity (MV), peak velocity (PV) and duration reliability.


Results: When using the average of the three repetitions, good-to-excellent (ICC2,1=0.708-0.993) inter-set and inter-day MV and PV ICCs were noted across all intensities and segments. The top and middle portion exhibited stronger reliability measures compared to the bottom. Movement velocity was not significantly different (p>0.05) at any exercise intensity, with the exception of MV at 60% during the top portion of the movement (p=0.045).


Conclusions: The HUMAC360 provides reliable measures of mean velocity and peak velocity during each segment of the barbel back squat.

Abstract 66 | PDF Downloads 31

References

1. Pareja-Blanco F, Rodríguez-Rosell D, Sánchez-Medina L, Gorostiaga EM, González-Badillo JJ. Effect of movement velocity during resistance training on neuromuscular performance. Int J Sports Med. 2014;35(11):916-924. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1363985
2. Sánchez-Moreno M, Rodríguez-Rosell D, Pareja-Blanco F, Mora-Custodio R, González-Badillo JJ. Movement velocity as indicator of relative intensity and level of effort attained during the set in pull-up exercise. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(10):1378-1384. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2016-0791
3. Pareja-Blanco F, Sánchez-Medina L, Suárez-Arrones L, González-Badillo JJ. Effects of velocity loss during resistance training on performance in professional soccer players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;12(4):512-519. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2016-0170
4. González-Badillo JJ, Rodríguez-Rosell D, Sánchez-Medina L, Gorostiaga EM, Pareja-Blanco F. Maximal intended velocity training induces greater gains in bench press performance than deliberately slower half-velocity training. Eur J Sport Sci. 2014;14(8):772-781. doi:10.1080/17461391.2014.905987
5. Pareja-Blanco F, Rodríguez-Rosell D, Sánchez-Medina L, et al. Effects of velocity loss during resistance training on athletic performance, strength gains and muscle adaptations. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2017;27(7):724-735. doi:10.1111/sms.12678
6. Harris NK, Cronin J, Taylor KL, Boris J, Sheppard J. Understanding position transducer technology for strength and conditioning practitioners. Strength & Conditioning Journal. 2010;32(4):66-79. doi:10.1519/SSC.0b013e3181eb341b
7. Garnacho-Castaño MV, López-Lastra S, Maté-Muñoz JL. Reliability and validity assessment of a linear position transducer. J Sports Sci Med. 2015;14(1):128-136.
8. Gant R, Pinzone A, Rivera J, et al. Validity and Reliability of a Linear Position Transducer to Measure Velocity, Duration, and Displacement in the Barbell Back Squat. International Journal of Strength and Conditioning. 2023;3(1). doi:10.47206/ijsc.v3i1.249
9. Larsen S, Kristiansen E, van den Tillaar R. New insights about the sticking region in back squats: an analysis of kinematics, kinetics, and myoelectric activity. Front Sports Act Living. 2021;3:691459. doi:10.3389/fspor.2021.691459
10. van den Tillaar R, Andersen V, Saeterbakken AH. The existence of a sticking region in free weight squats. J Hum Kinet. 2014;42:63-71. doi:10.2478/hukin-2014-0061
11. van den Tillaar R, Knutli TR, Larsen S. The effects of barbell placement on kinematics and muscle activation around the sticking region in squats. Front Sports Act Living. 2020;2:604177. doi:10.3389/fspor.2020.604177
12. van den Tillaar R, Ettema G. A comparison of successful and unsuccessful attempts in maximal bench pressing. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(11):2056-2063. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a8c360
13. Arifin WN. A Web-based Sample Size Calculator for Reliability Studies. EIMJ. 2018;10(3):67-76. doi:10.21315/eimj2018.10.3.8
14. Earle R. Weight Training Exercise Prescription.; 2006.
15. Weir JP. Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(1):231-240. doi:10.1519/15184.1
16. Koo TK, Li MY. A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research. J Chiropr Med. 2016;15(2):155-163. doi:10.1016/j.jcm.2016.02.012
17. Appleby BB, Banyard H, Cormack SJ, Newton RU. Validity and reliability of methods to determine barbell displacement in heavy back squats: implications for velocity-based training. J Strength Cond Res. 2020;34(11):3118-3123. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002803
18. Orange ST, Metcalfe JW, Marshall P, Vince RV, Madden LA, Liefeith A. Test-retest reliability of a commercial linear position transducer (gymaware powertool) to measure velocity and power in the back squat and bench press. J Strength Cond Res. 2020;34(3):728-737. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002715
19. Mangine GT, Serafini PR, Stratton MT, Olmos AA, VanDusseldorp TA, Feito Y. Effect of the repetitions-in-reserve resistance training strategy on bench press performance, perceived effort, and recovery in trained men. J Strength Cond Res. 2022;36(1):1-9. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000004158
20. Blazer HJ, Jordan CL, Pederson JA, et al. Effects of Time-of-Day Training Preference on Resistance-Exercise Performance. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2021;92(3):492-499. doi:10.1080/02701367.2020.1751032