Training and Nutritional Habits Before and During COVID-19 Quarantine on Physically Active Women

Main Article Content

Jonathan Perez
Giovanni Rosales-Soto
Alice Glaves
Patricia Echeverry
Camila Parada
Jose Gomez-Lopez
Francisco Morales-Acuna
Matias Monsalves-Alvarez



Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic caused a worldwide change in daily habits. Women have reported exercising more during the lockdown and maintaining their healthy habits when obligated to stay home with guidance.

Objective: This work aimed to determine how the one-on-one personal training guidance affects training volumes and knowledge to maintain healthy habits during the COVID-19 lockdown on physically active young women.

Methods: Twenty-three women participated in the study. Strength and conditioning coaches quantified the training workload before and during the quarantine for each subject. Nutritional intake was obtained through a 24-hour recall and a consumption frequency survey during quarantine.

Results: No significant differences were found between PRE and InQ body weight (56.6 ± 7.0 kg vs. 57.4 ± 7.1 kg), upper body training frequency (3.4 ± 0.8 vs. 3.4 ± 1.0), and lower body training frequency (3.4 ± 0.8 vs. 3.9 ± 1.0). The total calculation of lower-body volume shows a trend of reduction PRE vs. InQ (p = 0.051).

Conclusions: COVID-19 negatively affects training volumes on physically active women. However, a one-on-one follow-up by qualified trainers could support training quality and safety.

Abstract 173 | PDF Downloads 61


1. Dunton GF, Do B, Wang SD. Early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity and sedentary behavior in children living in the U.S. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1351. doi:10.1186/s12889-020-09429-3
2. Browne RAV, Macêdo GAD, Cabral LLP, et al. Initial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity and sedentary behavior in hypertensive older adults: An accelerometer-based analysis. Experimental Gerontology. 2020;142:111121. doi:10.1016/j.exger.2020.111121
3. Jia P, Zhang L, Yu W, et al. Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on activity patterns and weight status among youths in China: the COVID-19 Impact on Lifestyle Change Survey (COINLICS). International Journal of Obesity. Published online December 4, 2020:1-5. doi:10.1038/s41366-020-00710-4
4. Scarmozzino F, Visioli F. Covid-19 and the Subsequent Lockdown Modified Dietary Habits of Almost Half the Population in an Italian Sample. Foods. 2020;9(5):675. doi:10.3390/foods9050675
5. Assaloni R, Pellino VC, Puci MV, et al. Coronavirus disease (Covid-19): How does the exercise practice in active people with type 1 diabetes change? A preliminary survey. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2020;166. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108297
6. Xiao H, Zhang Y, Kong D, Li S, Yang N. Social Capital and Sleep Quality in Individuals Who Self-Isolated for 14 Days During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in January 2020 in China. Med Sci Monit. 2020;26:e923921-1-e923921-8. doi:10.12659/MSM.923921
7. Diniz TA, Christofaro DGD, Tebar WR, et al. Reduction of Physical Activity Levels During the COVID-19 Pandemic Might Negatively Disturb Sleep Pattern. Front Psychol. 2020;11. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.586157
8. Ammar A, Trabelsi K, Brach M, et al. Effects of home confinement on mental health and lifestyle behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak: Insight from the ECLB-COVID19 multicenter study. Biol Sport. 2020;38(1):9-21. doi:10.5114/biolsport.2020.96857
9. Zbinden‐Foncea H, Francaux M, Deldicque L, Hawley JA. Does High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Confer Some Protection Against Proinflammatory Responses After Infection by SARS-CoV-2? Obesity. 2020;28(8):1378-1381. doi:
10. Ranasinghe C, Ozemek C, Arena R. Exercise and well-being during COVID 19 – time to boost your immunity. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 2020;18(12):1195-1200. doi:10.1080/14787210.2020.1794818
11. Chow N, Fleming-Dutra K, Gierke R, et al. Preliminary Estimates of the Prevalence of Selected Underlying Health Conditions Among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 — United States, February 12–March 28, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(13):382-386. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6913e2
12. Nieman DC, Henson DA, Austin MD, Brown VA. Immune response to a 30-minute walk. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(1):57-62. doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000149808.38194.21
13. Nieman DC. Special feature for the Olympics: effects of exercise on the immune system: exercise effects on systemic immunity. Immunol Cell Biol. 2000;78(5):496-501. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1711.2000.t01-5-.x
14. Chtourou H, Trabelsi K, H'mida C, et al. Staying Physically Active During the Quarantine and Self-Isolation Period for Controlling and Mitigating the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Overview of the Literature. Front Psychol. 2020;11. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01708
15. Mujika I, Padilla S. Detraining: Loss of Training-Induced Physiological and Performance Adaptations. Part I. Sports Med. 2000;30(2):79-87. doi:10.2165/00007256-200030020-00002
16. Natalucci V, Carnevale Pellino V, Barbieri E, Vandoni M. Is It Important to Perform Physical Activity During Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)? Driving Action for a Correct Exercise Plan. Front Public Health. 2020;8. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.602020
17. Robertson M, Duffy F, Newman E, Prieto Bravo C, Ates HH, Sharpe H. Exploring changes in body image, eating and exercise during the COVID-19 lockdown: A UK survey. Appetite. 2021;159:105062. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2020.105062
18. Alwabli Y, AlRuwaili K, Alghadoni M, Alsaleh L. Exercise-related injuries among female gym members in Qassim 2019. IJMDC. Published online 2020:883-888. doi:10.24911/IJMDC.51-1583451120
19. Blackwell J, Atherton PJ, Smith K, et al. The efficacy of unsupervised home-based exercise regimens in comparison to supervised laboratory-based exercise training upon cardio-respiratory health facets. Physiological Reports. 2017;5(17):e13390. doi:
20. Tsekoura M, Billis E, Tsepis E, et al. The Effects of Group and Home-Based Exercise Programs in Elderly with Sarcopenia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2018;7(12):480. doi:10.3390/jcm7120480
21. Pinelli E, Barone G, Marini S, et al. Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown on Adherence to Individual Home- or Gym-Based Exercise Training among Women with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(5):2441. doi:10.3390/ijerph18052441
22. World Medical Association. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. JAMA. 2013;310(20):2191-2194. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.281053
23. King N, Byrne NM, Hunt A, Hills A. Comparing exercise prescribed with exercise completed: Effects of gender and mode of exercise. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2010;28(6):633-640. doi:10.1080/02640411003602027
24. Marston KJ, Peiffer JJ, Newton MJ, Scott BR. A comparison of traditional and novel metrics to quantify resistance training. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):5606. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-05953-2
25. Cerda R, Barrera C, Arena M, Bascuñán KA, Jimenez G. Atlas fotográfico de alimentos y preparaciones típicas chilenas. Encuesta Nacional de Consumo Alimentario. Published online 2010:6405-6424.
26. Manore MM. Exercise and the Institute of Medicine Recommendations for Nutrition. Current Sports Medicine Reports. 2005;4(4):193-198. doi:10.1097/01.CSMR.0000306206.72186.00
27. Pellegrini M, Ponzo V, Rosato R, et al. Changes in Weight and Nutritional Habits in Adults with Obesity during the "Lockdown" Period Caused by the COVID-19 Virus Emergency. Nutrients. 2020;12(7):2016. doi:10.3390/nu12072016
28. Bourdas DI, Zacharakis ED. Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on Physical Activity in a Sample of Greek Adults. Sports. 2020;8(10):139. doi:10.3390/sports8100139
29. Houmard JA. Impact of Reduced Training on Performance in Endurance Athletes. Sports Med. 1991;12(6):380-393. doi:10.2165/00007256-199112060-00004
30. Muriel X, Courel-Ibáñez J, Cerezuela-Espejo V, Pallarés JG. Training Load and Performance Impairments in Professional Cyclists During COVID-19 Lockdown. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2020;1(aop):1-4. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2020-0501
31. Colquhoun RJ, Gai CM, Aguilar D, et al. Training Volume, Not Frequency, Indicative of Maximal Strength Adaptations to Resistance Training. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2018;32(5):1207-1213. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002414
32. Baz-Valle E, Balsalobre-Fernández C, Alix-Fages C, Santos-Concejero J. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Different Resistance Training Volumes on Muscle Hypertrophy. Journal of Human Kinetics. 2022;81(1):199-210. doi:10.2478/hukin-2022-0017
33. Vitale JA, Bonato M, Borghi S, et al. Home-Based Resistance Training for Older Subjects during the COVID-19 Outbreak in Italy: Preliminary Results of a Six-Months RCT. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(24):9533. doi:10.3390/ijerph17249533
34. Arias Labrador E, Vilaró Casamitjana J, Blanco Díaz S, Ariza Turiel G, Paz Bermejo MA, Brugada Terradellas R. [Effects of home-based strength training during COVID-19 lockdown in acute coronary syndrome]. Rehabilitacion (Madr). 2022;56(1):11-19. doi:10.1016/j.rh.2021.04.002
35. Natalucci V, Marini CF, Flori M, et al. Effects of a Home-Based Lifestyle Intervention Program on Cardiometabolic Health in Breast Cancer Survivors during the COVID-19 lockdown. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021;10(12):2678. doi:10.3390/jcm10122678
36. Sampson JA, Gibson N, Whalan M, Veith S. The COVID-19 lockdown in Australia: a case study of exercise programming in male academy football players to prepare for return to play. Science and Medicine in Football. 2021;5(sup1):38-43. doi:10.1080/24733938.2021.1983203
37. Antunes R, Frontini R, Amaro N, et al. Exploring Lifestyle Habits, Physical Activity, Anxiety and Basic Psychological Needs in a Sample of Portuguese Adults during COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(12):4360. doi:10.3390/ijerph17124360
38. Reigal RE, Páez-Maldonado JA, Pastrana-Brincones JL, Morillo-Baro JP, Hernández-Mendo A, Morales-Sánchez V. Physical Activity Is Related to Mood States, Anxiety State and Self-Rated Health in COVID-19 Lockdown. Sustainability. 2021;13(10):5444. doi:10.3390/su13105444
39. Edwards S. Physical exercise and psychological well-being. South African Journal of Psychology. 2006;36(2):357-373. doi:10.10520/EJC98373
40. Al-Domi H, AL-Dalaeen A, AL-Rosan S, Batarseh N, Nawaiseh H. Healthy nutritional behavior during COVID-19 lockdown: A cross-sectional study. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN. 2021;42:132-137. doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.02.003
41. Tarnopolsky MA, Zawada C, Richmond LB, et al. Gender differences in carbohydrate loading are related to energy intake. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2001;91(1):225-230. doi:10.1152/jappl.2001.91.1.225
42. Burke LM, Castell LM, Stear SJ, et al. BJSM reviews: A–Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance Part 4. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2009;43(14):1088-1090. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.068643
43. Ruano J, Teixeira VH. Prevalence of dietary supplement use by gym members in Portugal and associated factors. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2020;17(1):11. doi:10.1186/s12970-020-00342-z
44. Attlee A, Haider A, Hassan A, Alzamil N, Hashim M, Obaid RS. Dietary Supplement Intake and Associated Factors Among Gym Users in a University Community. Journal of Dietary Supplements. 2018;15(1):88-97. doi:10.1080/19390211.2017.1326430
45. Jorquera Aguilera C, Rodríguez-Rodríguez F, Torrealba Vieira MI, Campos Serrano J, Gracia Leiva N. Consumo, características y perfil del consumidor de suplementos nutricionales en gimnasios de Santiago de Chile. Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte. 2016;9(3):99-104. doi:10.1016/j.ramd.2015.04.004
46. Gilbert JA, Bendsen NT, Tremblay A, Astrup A. Effect of proteins from different sources on body composition. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2011;21:B16-B31. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2010.12.008
47. Smith-Ryan AE, Cabre HE, Eckerson JM, Candow DG. Creatine Supplementation in Women's Health: A Lifespan Perspective. Nutrients. 2021;13(3):877. doi:10.3390/nu13030877
48. Righi NC, Schuch FB, De Nardi AT, et al. Effects of vitamin C on oxidative stress, inflammation, muscle soreness, and strength following acute exercise: meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials. Eur J Nutr. 2020;59(7):2827-2839. doi:10.1007/s00394-020-02215-2
49. Vitamin C–enriched gelatin supplementation before intermittent activity augments collagen synthesis | The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Oxford Academic. Accessed February 17, 2022.
50. Lewis LN, Hayhoe RPG, Mulligan AA, Luben RN, Khaw KT, Welch AA. Lower Dietary and Circulating Vitamin C in Middle- and Older-Aged Men and Women Are Associated with Lower Estimated Skeletal Muscle Mass. The Journal of Nutrition. 2020;150(10):2789-2798. doi:10.1093/jn/nxaa221
51. Griffin G, Hewison M, Hopkin J, et al. Vitamin D and COVID-19: evidence and recommendations for supplementation. Royal Society Open Science. 7(12):201912. doi:10.1098/rsos.201912
52. Elham AS, Azam K, Azam J, Mostafa L, Nasrin B, Marzieh N. Serum vitamin D, calcium, and zinc levels in patients with COVID-19. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN. 2021;43:276-282. doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.03.040
53. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with COVID‐19 positivity and severity of the disease - Demir - 2021 - Journal of Medical Virology - Wiley Online Library. Accessed February 17, 2022.
54. Książek A, Zagrodna A, Słowińska-Lisowska M. Vitamin D, Skeletal Muscle Function and Athletic Performance in Athletes—A Narrative Review. Nutrients. 2019;11(8):1800. doi:10.3390/nu11081800
55. Mariani J, Giménez VMM, Bergam I, et al. Association Between Vitamin D Deficiency and COVID-19 Incidence, Complications, and Mortality in 46 Countries: An Ecological Study. Health Security. 2021;19(3):302-308. doi:10.1089/hs.2020.0137