Main Article Content
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine if caloric expenditure and typing speed differed among three positions (sitting, standing, walking).
Methods: Participants included 40 college students (18-22 years, 30 males and 10 females) on either the baseball or track and field teams. Each participant was tested for 5 minutes in three different positions. Caloric expenditure was measured via indirect calorimetry and typing productivity via a 3-minute typing test. Repeated measures ANOVAs and T-Tests were performed to determine statistical differences for caloric expenditure and typing speed.
Results: Caloric expenditure (calories per 5 minutes) was significantly higher for walking (16.4 ± 3.1) than for sitting (9.0 ± 2.4, p <0.0001) and standing (9.4 ± 2.0, p <0.0001). For typing productivity, standing resulted in faster typing speed than walking (37.4 ± 10.2 vs. 34.7 ± 10.7 wpm, p = 0096).
Conclusions: Using a standup walking desk to type while working expends significantly more calories than typing while sitting or standing at a desk. However, typing speed was significantly higher while standing at a desk than while walking at a desk.
2. Moulin MS, Irwin JD. An Assessment of Sedentary Time Among Undergraduate Students at a Canadian University. Published online 2017:14.
3. Moulin MS, Truelove S, Burke SM, Irwin JD. Sedentary time among undergraduate students: A systematic review. Journal of American College Health. 2019;0(0):1-8.
4. Chau JY, Reyes-Marcelino G, Burnett AC, Bauman AE, Freeman B. Hyping health effects: a news analysis of the “new smoking” and the role of sitting. Br J Sports Med. 2019;53(16):1039-1040.
5. Vallance JK, Gardiner PA, Lynch BM, et al. Evaluating the Evidence on Sitting, Smoking, and Health: Is Sitting Really the New Smoking? Am J Public Health. 2018;108(11):1478-1482.
6. Biswas A, Oh PI, Faulkner GE, et al. Sedentary time and its association with risk for disease incidence, mortality, and hospitalization in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2015;162(2):123-132.
7. Guo C, Zhou Q, Zhang D, et al. Total sedentary behavior and TV viewing with risk of overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension: a dose-response meta-analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab. Published online August 29, 2019.
8. Nicolo ML, Shewokis PA, Boullata J, et al. Sedentary behavior time as a predictor of hemoglobin A1c among adults, 40 to 59 years of age, living in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2004 and 2013 to 2014. Nutr Health. Published online September 25, 2019:260106019870436.
9. Even if you exercise, too much sitting is bad for your heart. Mayo Clin Health Lett. 2011;29(9):4.
10. Physical Activity Guidelines - health.gov.
11. Dunstan: Too much sitting–a health hazard - Google Scholar.
12. Cooley D, Pedersen S. A Pilot Study of Increasing Nonpurposeful Movement Breaks at Work as a Means of Reducing Prolonged Sitting. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2013;2013:e128376.
13. Cowgill BO, Perez V, Gerdes E, et al. Get up, stand up, stand up for your health! Faculty and student perspectives on addressing prolonged sitting in university settings. Journal of American College Health. 2021;69(2):198-207.
14. Butler KM, Ramos JS, Buchanan CA, Dalleck LC. Can reducing sitting time in the university setting improve the cardiometabolic health of college students? Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2018;11:603-610.
15. Gilson ND, Hall C, Renton A, Ng N, von Hippel W. Do Sitting, Standing, or Treadmill Desks Impact Psychobiological Indicators of Work Productivity? J Phys Act Health. 2017;14(10):793-796.
16. Jerome M, Janz KF, Baquero B, Carr LJ. Introducing sit-stand desks increases classroom standing time among university students. Prev Med Rep. 2017;8:232-237.
17. Winkler EAH, Chastin S, Eakin EG, et al. Cardiometabolic Impact of Changing Sitting, Standing, and Stepping in the Workplace. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018;50(3):516-524.
18. Ben-Ner A, Hamann DJ, Koepp G, Manohar CU, Levine J. Treadmill Workstations: The Effects of Walking while Working on Physical Activity and Work Performance. PLoS One. 2014;9(2).
19. Alderman BL, Olson RL, Mattina DM. Cognitive function during low-intensity walking: a test of the treadmill workstation. J Phys Act Health. 2014;11(4):752-758.
20. Ehmann PJ, Brush CJ, Olson RL, Bhatt SN, Banu AH, Alderman BL. Active Workstations Do Not Impair Executive Function in Young and Middle-Age Adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017;49(5):965-974.
21. Labonté-LeMoyne É, Santhanam R, Léger P-M, Courtemanche F, Fredette M, Sénécal S. The delayed effect of treadmill desk usage on recall and attention. Computers in Human Behavior. 2015;46:1-5.
22. Larson MJ, LeCheminant JD, Hill K, Carbine K, Masterson T, Christenson E. Cognitive and typing outcomes measured simultaneously with slow treadmill walking or sitting: implications for treadmill desks. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0121309.
23. Creasy SA, Rogers RJ, Byard TD, Kowalsky RJ, Jakicic JM. Energy Expenditure During Acute Periods of Sitting, Standing, and Walking. J Phys Act Health. 2016;13(6):573-578.
24. Burns J, Forde C, Dockrell S. Energy Expenditure of Standing Compared to Sitting While Conducting Office Tasks. Hum Factors. 2017;59(7):1078-1087.
25. Mansoubi M, Pearson N, Clemes SA, et al. Energy expenditure during common sitting and standing tasks: examining the 1.5 MET definition of sedentary behaviour. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:516.
26. Saeidifard F, Medina-Inojosa JR, Supervia M, et al. Differences of energy expenditure while sitting versus standing: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2018;25(5):522-538.