Morning Versus Evening Short-Term Whey Protein Supplementation in Collegiate Athletes

Main Article Content

Jennifer B. Fields
Brittanie L. Lockard
Meghan K. Magee
Margaret T. Jones


Women athletes, Protein timing, Sleep, Fatigue, Soreness, Stress, Mood, Satiety


Introduction: Benefits of protein consumption are established, yet athletes often consume insufficient protein. The effect of protein supplementation timing on self- reported wellness measures (SRWM) is unknown. The purpose was to examine the effect of protein supplementation timing on overall protein intake and SRWM. Methods: Collegiate athletes (men: n=13; body mass: 76.1 ± 6.6 kg; body fat %: 14.8 ± 2.3%) (women: n=16; body mass: 72.5 ± 10.8 kg; body fat %: 24.9 ± 4.6%), defined as protein-insufficient (daily intake <1.5 g/kg body weight) participated. Protein supplementation occurred over two 2-week periods (morning, evening) separated by a 2-week washout. Daily SRWM (fatigue, soreness, sleep, stress, mood, energy, recovery, satiety) were collected. ANOVA assessed differences in total protein intake and SRWM measures across conditions. Spearman correlations assessed relationships between protein intake and SRWM.
Results: No sex difference existed in protein intake based on supplementation timing. Compared to baseline, morning and evening supplementation led to an increase (p<0.05) in absolute and relative protein intake for men and women. Satiety was increased during morning and evening conditions compared to washout for men (p=0.004) and women (p=0.012), but other SRWM did not differ. Correlations existed for relative protein intake and satiety (r=0.499, p<0.001) and stress (r=-0.321, p=0.019).
Conclusions: Protein supplementation enabled participants to achieve the recommended protein intake and provided a greater feeling of satiety. Satiety did not differ between morning and evening, providing flexibility as to when to ingest a daily supplement.

Abstract 37 | PDF Downloads 10


1. Malinauskas B, Overton R, Carpenter A, Corbett A. Summer league college baseball players: do dietary intake and barriers to eating healthy differ between game and non-game days? SMART J. 2007;3(2):23-34.
2. Palumbo C, Clark N. Case problem: nutrition concerns related to the performance of a baseball team. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000;100:704-705.
3. Hinton P, Sanford T, Davidson M, Yakushko O, Beck N. Nutrient intakes and dietary behaviors of male and female collegiate athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004;14:389-405.
4. Jagim AR, Zabriskie H, Currier B, Harty PS, Stecker R, Kerksick CM. Nutrient Status and perceptions of energy and macronutrient intake in a Group of Collegiate Female Lacrosse Athletes. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2019;16(1):43. doi:10.1186/s12970-019-0314-7
5. Werner EN, Guadagni AJ, Pivarnik JM. Assessment of nutrition knowledge in division I college athletes. Journal of American College Health. 2020;0(0):1-8. doi:10.1080/07448481.2020.1740234
6. Holden S. Nutritional Knowledge of Collegiate Athletes. 2018;33:65-77.
7. Kerksick CM, Wilborn CD, Roberts MD, et al. ISSN exercise & sports nutrition review update: research & recommendations. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018;15(1):38. doi:10.1186/s12970-018-0242-y
8. Heaton L, Davis J, Rawson E, et al. Selected in-season nutritional strategies to enhance recovery
for team sport athletes: a practical overview. Sports Med. 2017;47:2201-2218.
9. Witard OC, Wardle SL, Macnaughton LS, Hodgson AB, Tipton KD. Protein Considerations for Optimising Skeletal Muscle Mass in Healthy Young and Older Adults. Nutrients. 2016;8(4):181.
10. Shriver L, Betts N, Gena W. Dietary intakes and eating habits of college athletes: are female college
athletes following the current sports nutrition standards? J Am Coll Health. 2013;61(1):10-16.
11. Nepocatych S, Balilionis G, O’Neal E. Analysis of dietary intake and body composition of female
athletes over a competitive season. MJSSM. 2017;6(2):57-65.
12. Valliant M, Emplaincourt H, Wenzel R, Garner B. Nutrition education by a registered dietitian
improves dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of a NCAA female volleyball team. Nutrients.
13. Jager R, Kerksick C, Campbell B, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand:
protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017;14.
14. Phillips S, Van Loon L. Dietary protein for athletes: From requirements to optimum adaptation. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(S1):S29-S38.
15. Delk-Licata A, Behrens C, Benardot D, et al. The association between dietary protein intake frequency, amount, and state of energy balance on body composition in a women’s collegiate soccer team. Int J Sports Exerc Med. 2019;5(3).
16. Parnell J, Wiens K, Erdman K. Dietary intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Nutrients. 2016;8(9).
17. Crittenden R, Buckley J, Cameron-Smith D, et al. Functional diary protein supplements for elite athletes. Aust J Dairy Technol. 2009;64(1).
18. Boirie Y, Dangin M, Gachon P, Vasson M-P, Maubois J-L, Beaufrère B. Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. PNAS. 1997;94(26):14930-14935. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.26.14930
19. Tang JE, Moore DR, Kujbida GW, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. J App Physiol. 2009;107.
20. Dangin M, Guillet C, Garcia-Rodenas C, et al. The rate of protein digestion affects protein gain differently during aging in humans. J Physiol. 2003;549(Pt 2):635-644. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2002.036897
21. Hoffman J, Falvo M. Protein- Which is Best? Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2004;3:118-130.
22. Markus CR, Jonkman LM, Lammers JHCM, Deutz NEP, Messer MH, Rigtering N. Evening intake of alpha-lactalbumin increases plasma tryptophan availability and improves morning alertness and
brain measures of attention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(5):1026-1033. doi:10.1093/ajcn/81.5.1026
23. Milagres MP, Minim VPR, Minim LA, Simiqueli AA, Moraes LES, Martino HSD. Night milking
adds value to cow’s milk. J Sci Food Agric. 2014;94(8):1688-1692. doi:10.1002/jsfa.6480
24. Madzima TA, Panton LB, Fretti SK, Kinsey AW, Ormsbee MJ. Night-time consumption of protein or carbohydrate results in increased morning resting energy expenditure in active college-aged men.
British Journal of Nutrition. 2014;111(1):71-77. doi:10.1017/S000711451300192X
25. West DWD, Abou Sawan S, Mazzulla M, Williamson E, Moore DR. Whey protein supplementation enhances whole body protein metabolism and performance recovery after resistance exercise: a double-blind crossover study. Nutrients. 2017;9(7):735.
26. Camera DM, West DWD, Phillips SM, et al. Protein ingestion increases myofibrillar protein
synthesis after concurrent exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2015;47(1):82-91.
27. Alghannam AF, Templeman I, Thomas JE, et al. Effect of carbohydrate–protein supplementation
on endurance training adaptations. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2020;120(10):2273-2287.
28. Areta J, Burke L, Ross M, et al. Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged
recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis. J Physiol. Published online
29. Areta JL, Burke LM, Camera DM, et al. Reduced resting skeletal muscle protein synthesis is rescued
by resistance exercise and protein ingestion following short-term energy deficit. American Journal of
Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2014;306(8):E989-E997. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00590.2013
30. Mollahosseini M, Shab-Bidar S, Rahimi MH, Djafarian K. Effect of whey protein supplementation on long and short term appetite: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Nutrition
ESPEN. 2017;20:34-40. doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2017.04.002
31. Ridge A, Devine A, Lyons-wall P, Conlon J, Lo J. The impact of whey protein supplementation in
older adults on nutrient intakes and satiety over an 11-week exercise intervention. Food Quality and
Preference. 2018;68:72-79. doi:10.1016/j.foodqual.2018.01.013
32. Pasiakos S, Lieberman H, McLellan T. Effects of protein supplements on muscle damage, soreness
and recovery of muscle function and physical performance: a systematic review. Sports Med.
33. Veldhorst M, Smeets S, Soenen S, et al. Protein-induced satiety: effects and mechanisms of different
proteins. Physiol Behav. 2008;94(2):300-307.
34. Hector A, Marcotte G, Churchward-Venne T, et al. Whey Protein Supplementation Preserves
Postprandial Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis during Short-Term Energy Restriction in Overweight and Obese Adults | The Journal of Nutrition | Oxford Academic. The Journal of Nutrition. 2014;145(2):246-252.
35. Shenoy S, Dhawan M, Singh Sandhu J. Four Weeks of Supplementation With Isolated Soy Protein Attenuates Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Enhances Muscle Recovery in Well Trained Athletes: A Randomized Trial. Asian J Sports Med. 2016;7(3). doi:10.5812/asjsm.33528
36. Mah C, Mah K, Kezirian E, Dement W . The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players. Sleep. 2011;34(7):943-950.
37. Marshall G, Turner A. The importance of sleep for athletic performance. Strength Cond J. 2016;38(1):61-67.
38. Copenhaver E, Diamond A. The value of sleep on athletic performance, injury, and recovery in the young athlete. Pediatric Annals. 2017;46(3):106-111.
39. Andrade A, Bevilacqua G, Coimbra D, Pereira F, Brandt R. Sleep quality, mood and performance: a study of elite brazilian volleyball athletes. J Sports Sci and Med. 2016;15(4):601-605.
40. Watson A. Sleep and athletic performance. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2017;16(6):413-418.
41. Tavares S, Smith T, Driller M. Fatigue and recovery in rugby: a review. Sports Med. 2017;47:1515-
42. Lewis P, Ruby D, Bush-Joseph C. Muscle soreness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. Clin Sports
Med. 2012;31:255-262.

43. Cheund K, Hume P, Maxwell L. Delayed onset muscle soreness: treatment strategies and perfromance factors. Sports Med. 2003;33(2):145-164.

44. Kerr G, Leith L. Stress management and athletic performance. The Sport Psychologist. 1993;7(3):221-231.

45. Hicket A, Shields D, Henning M. Perceived hunger in college students related to academic and athlete performance. Educational Sciences. 2019;9(3).

46. MacKinnon L. Special feature for the Olympics: Overtraining effects on immunity and performance in athletes. Immunol Cell Biol. 2000;78:502-509.

47. Govus A, Coutts A, Duffield R, Murray A, Fullagar H. Relationship between pertaining subjective wellness measures, player load, and rating of perceived exertion training load in American college football. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;13(1):95-101.

48. Kraemer WJ, Solomon-Hill G, Volk BM, et al. The Effects of Soy and Whey Protein Supplementation on Acute Hormonal Responses to Resistance Exercise in Men. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2013;32(1):66-74. doi:10.1080/07315724.2013.770648

49. Hooper SL, Mackinnon LT. Monitoring overtraining in athletes. Recommendations. Sports Medicine (Auckland, NZ). 1995;20(5):321-327. doi:10.2165/00007256-199520050-00003

50. Flint A, Raben A, Blundell JE, Astrup A. Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scales in assessment of appetite sensations in single test meal studies. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal ofthe International Association for the Study ofObesity. 2000;24(1):38-48. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801083

51. Laurent CM, Green JM, Bishop PA, et al. A practical approach to monitoring recovery: development of a perceived recovery status scale. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.2011;25(3):620-628. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181c69ec6

52. Phillips S. Dietary protein requirements and adaptive advantages in athletes. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:S158-S167.

53. Wooding D, Packer J, Hiroyuki K, et al. Increased protein requirements in female athletes after
variable-intensity exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017;49(11):2297-2304. doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001366

54. Antonio J, Ellerbroek A, Peacock C, Silver T. Casein protein supplementation in trained men and women: morning versus evening. Int J Exerc Sci. 2017;10(3):479-486.

55. Larson-Meyer DE, Woolf K, Burke L. Assessment of nutrient status in athletes and the need for supplementation. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2018;28(2):139-158. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0338

56. Hull MV, Neddo J, Jagim AR, Oliver JM, Greenwood M, Jones MT. Gender differences and access to sports dietitian influence dietary habits of collegiate athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016;13(38).

57. Hull MV, Neddo J, Jagim AR, Oliver JM, Greenwood M, Jones MT. Availability of a sports dietitian may lead to improved performance and recovery of NCAA Division I baseball athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017;14(29).

58. Torres-McGehee TM, Pritchett KL, Zippel D, Minton DM, Cellamare A, Sihila M. Sports nutrition
knowledge among collegiate athletes, coaches, athletic trainers, and strength and conditioning specialists. J Athl Train. 47(2):205-211.

59. Gentile CL, Ward E, Holst JJ, et al. Resistant starch and protein intake enhances fat oxidation and feelings of fullness in lean and overweight/obese women. Nutrition Journal. 2015;14(1):113. doi:10.1186/s12937-015-0104-2

60. Bilsborough S, Mann N. A review of issues of dietary protein intake in humans. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006;16:129-152.

61. Journel M, Chaumontet C, Darcel N, Fromentin G, Tome D. Brain responses to high-protein diets. Advan Nutr. 2012;3(3):322-329.

62. Singh K. Nutrient and stress management. J Nutr Food Sci. 2016;6(4). doi:10.4172/2155- 9600.1000528

63. Lemmens S, Born L, Martens E, Westerterp-Plantenga M. Influence of consumption of a high- protein vs. high carbohydrate meal on the physiological cortisol and psychological mood response in men and women. PLOS One. 2011;6(2).